Depression is a widespread, chronic clinical illness that affects thoughts, attitudes, and actual wellbeing. Low spirits, a lack of energy, resentment, sleepiness, and an inability to appreciate life are some signs of it. In any event, clinical investigations to date have demonstrated that dejected people don't respond well to treatment. Therefore, in this exceptional issue, we will purposefully examine sadness at the conduct level, with a special focus on a few fascinating points, such as "The study of disease transmission of sadness and constant clinical illness Potential components that included 'differences in sexual orientation,' 'age contrasts,' 'impact on social factors,' and 'the hereditary effect These audits will give new insight into the therapy of sadness. Currently, there are no clinically significant tools for defining subgroups or predicting outcomes. This writing audit sought to summarize both established and new methods for development and conduct research on aspects closely related to results. Hereditary factors have an impact on a person's susceptibility to severe depression. There is no evidence that certain characteristics cause major depressive disorder (MDD). Clear risk factors for developing depression increase the possibility that severe symptoms may emerge at the onset of this condition. The findings demonstrate the importance of early recognition and intervention because untreated depression is associated with worse outcomes. Early recovery is associated with response and improvement, while comorbidities slow down the progression of the illness to progress more slowly. Peripheral inflammatory indicators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), have been studied as potential biomarkers. In any event, their integration into standard clinical consideration has not yet been fully elucidated, necessitating additional research.


[1] R. B. Lipton, T. J. Schwedt, and B. W. Friedman, “GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Stud,” Lancet, vol. 388, no. 10053, pp. 1545–1602, 2016.

[2] M. Prince et al., “No health without mental health,” Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9590, pp. 859–877, 2007. [3] L. D. Phuc, “A cross-sectional study on depression and its associated factors among adults in urban Can Tho, Vietnam,” 2023. [4] M. A. Rynn and O. Brawman-Mintzer, “Generalized anxiety disorder: acute and chronic treatment,” CNS Spectr., vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 716–723, 2004. [5] A. Testa, R. Giannuzzi, F. Sollazzo, L. Petrongolo, L. Bernardini, and S. Daini, “Psychiatric emergencies (part I): psychiatric disorders causing organic symptoms,” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, vol. 17, no. Suppl 1, pp. 55–64, 2013. [6] M. W. Eysenck, N. Derakshan, R. Santos, and M. G. Calvo, “Anxiety and cognitive performance: attentional control theory.,” Emotion, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 336, 2007. [7] R. B. Lipton, T. J. Schwedt, and B. W. Friedman, “GBD 2015: Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators, others. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990- 2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Di,” Lancet, vol. 388, no. 10053, pp. 1545–1602, 2016. [8] H. Häfner, K. Maurer, G. Trendler, W. an der Heiden, and M. Schmidt, “The early course of schizophrenia and depression,” Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., vol. 255, pp. 167–173, 2005. [9] B. Han, G. Du, Y. Yang, J. Chen, and G. Sun, “Relationships between physical activity, body image, BMI, depression and anxiety in Chinese college students during the COVID-19 pandemic,” BMC Public Health, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2023. [10] T. Ljungberg, E. Bondza, and C. Lethin, “Evidence of the Importance of Dietary Habits Regarding Depressive Symptoms and Depression,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 17, no. 5. 2020. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051616. [11] K. Torabynasab, H. Shahinfar, N. Payandeh, and S. Jazayeri, “Association between dietary caffeine, coffee, and tea consumption and depressive symptoms in adults: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies,” Front. Nutr., vol. 10, p. 128, 2023. [12] C. H. Wang, “Association between physical activity and sedentary behavior with depressive symptoms among US high school students, 2019,” Prev. Chronic Dis., vol. 19, 2022. [13] C. Zhang et al., “Associations Between Academic Stress and Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Anxiety Symptoms and Hopelessness Among Chinese College Students,” Psychol. Res. Behav. Manag., vol. 15, pp. 547–556, Dec. 2022, doi: 10.2147/PRBM.S353778. [14] S. M. Gold et al., “Comorbid depression in medical diseases,” Nat. Rev. Dis. Prim., vol. 6, no. 1, p. 69, 2020. [15] P. F. Sullivan, M. C. Neale, and K. S. Kendler, “Genetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis,” Am. J. Psychiatry, vol. 157, no. 10, pp. 1552–1562, 2000. [16] T. Spijkerman et al., “Depression following myocardial infarction: first-ever versus ongoing and recurrent episodes,” Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 411–417, 2005. [17] W. J. Katon, “Epidemiology and treatment of depression in patients with chronic medical illness,” Dialogues Clin. Neurosci., 2022. [18] S. J. Schleifer and M. M. Macari-Hinson, “The nature and course of depression following myocardial infarction,” Arch. Intern. Med., vol. 149, no. 8, pp. 1785–1789, 1989. [19] S. B. Patten, “Long-term medical conditions and major depression in a Canadian population study at waves 1 and 2,” J. Affect. Disord., vol. 63, no. 1–3, pp. 35–41, 2001. [20] V. T. Kronsten, T. H. Tranah, C. Pariante, and D. L. Shawcross, “Gut-derived systemic inflammation as a driver of depression in chronic liver disease,” J. Hepatol., vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 665–680, 2022. [21] C. Zhang et al., “Survey of insomnia and related social psychological factors among medical staff involved in the 2019 novel coronavirus disease outbreak,” Front. psychiatry, vol. 11, p. 306, 2020. [22] N. W. S. Chew et al., “A multinational, multicentre study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak,” Brain. Behav. Immun., vol. 88, pp. 559–565, 2020. [23] M. M. Hossain et al., “Epidemiology of mental health problems in COVID-19: a review,” F1000Research, vol. 9, 2020. [24] J. Read et al., “A randomized controlled trial of internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy to prevent the development of depressive disorders in older adults with multimorbidity,” J. Affect. Disord., vol. 264, pp. 464–473, 2020. [25] Y. Pu et al., “Fecal microbiota transplantation from patients with rheumatoid arthritis causes depression-like behaviors in mice through abnormal T cells activation,” Transl. Psychiatry, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 223, 2022. [26] A.-M. Bao, G. Meynen, and D. F. Swaab, “The stress system in depression and neurodegeneration: focus on the human hypothalamus,” Brain Res. Rev., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 531– 553, 2008. [27] A. J. Oldehinkel and E. M. C. Bouma, “Sensitivity to the depressogenic effect of stress and HPAaxis reactivity in adolescence: a review of gender differences,” Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1757–1770, 2011. [28] J. J. J. Schuch, A. M. Roest, W. A. Nolen, B. W. J. H. Penninx, and P. De Jonge, “Gender differences in major depressive disorder: results from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety,” J. Affect. Disord., vol. 156, pp. 156–163, 2014. [29] A. Brailean, J. Curtis, K. Davis, A. Dregan, and M. Hotopf, “Characteristics, comorbidities, and correlates of atypical depression: evidence from the UK Biobank Mental Health Survey,” Psychol. Med., vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 1129–1138, 2020. [30] S. G. Kornstein et al., “Gender differences in chronic major and double depression,” J. Affect. Disord., vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2000. [31] S. M. Marcus et al., “Sex differences in depression symptoms in treatment-seeking adults: confirmatory analyses from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study,” Compr. Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 238–246, 2008. [32] X. Zhu, L. Cai, J. Yi, S. Yao, and Y. Luo, “Predictive value to depressive symptoms of dysfunctional attitudes in collegc students a multi-wave longitudinal study,” Chin Ment Heal. J, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 606–609, 2011. [33] C. Zlotnick, M. T. Shea, P. A. Pilkonis, I. Elkin, and C. Ryan, “Gender, type of treatment, dysfunctional attitudes, social support, life events, and depressive symptoms over naturalistic follow-up,” Am. J. Psychiatry, vol. 153, no. 8, pp. 1021–1027, 1996. [34] D. L. Spangler, A. D. Simons, S. M. Monroe, and M. E. Thase, “Gender differences in cognitive diathesis-stress domain match: Implications for differential pathways to depression.,” J. Abnorm. Psychol., vol. 105, no. 4, p. 653, 1996. [35] M. Bartels, “Genetics of wellbeing and its components satisfaction with life, happiness, and quality of life: A review and meta-analysis of heritability studies,” Behav. Genet., vol. 45, pp. 137–156, 2015. [36] S. Van de Velde, P. Bracke, and K. Levecque, “Gender differences in depression in 23 European countries. Cross-national variation in the gender gap in depression,” Soc. Sci. Med., vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 305–313, 2010. [37] C. Batz-Barbarich, L. Tay, L. Kuykendall, and H. K. Cheung, “A meta-analysis of gender differences in subjective well-being: Estimating effect sizes and associations with gender inequality,” Psychol. Sci., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1491–1503, 2018. [38] W. H. Organization, “Managing programmes on reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health,” 2021. [39] R. C. Kessler, G. P. Amminger, S. Aguilar-Gaxiola, J. Alonso, S. Lee, and T. B. Ustun, “Age Age of onset of mental disorders: a review of recent literature.” DOI, 2007. [40] P. Thomson, “Children and young people: Voices in visual research,” in Doing visual research with children and young people, Routledge, 2009, pp. 23–42. [41] S. Cramer, “# Statusofmind: Social Media and Young People’s Mental Health and Wellbeing,” 2018. [42] S. E. Hetrick, G. R. Cox, K. G. Witt, J. J. Bir, and S. N. Merry, “Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), third‐ wave CBT and interpersonal therapy (IPT) based interventions for preventing depression in children and adolescents,” Cochrane database Syst. Rev., no. 8, 2016. [43] J. S. Hyde, A. H. Mezulis, and L. Y. Abramson, “The ABCs of depression: integrating affective, biological, and cognitive models to explain the emergence of the gender difference in depression.,” Psychol. Rev., vol. 115, no. 2, p. 291, 2008. [44] L. A. Pratt, Depression in the US household population, 2009-2012, no. 2015. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and …, 2014. [45] A. Thapar, S. Collishaw, D. S. Pine, and A. K. Thapar, “Depression in adolescence,” Lancet, vol. 379, no. 9820, pp. 1056–1067, 2012. [46] J. Gijón Puerta, M. C. Galván Malagón, M. Khaled Gijón, and E. J. Lizarte Simón, “Levels of Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in University Students from Spain and Costa Rica during Periods of Confinement and Virtual Learning,” Educ. Sci., vol. 12, no. 10, p. 660, 2022. [47] M. J. Chemagosi and O. B. Ajayi, “Coping Mechanism for First-Year Students Transitioning to Higher Education: Academic Challenges and Adjustments to First-Year Students,” in Handbook of Research on Coping Mechanisms for First-Year Students Transitioning to Higher Education, IGI Global, 2023, pp. 230–244. [48] K. T. Ganson, J. O’Connor, and J. M. Nagata, “Physical violence perpetration among college students: prevalence and associations with substance use and mental health symptoms,” J. Interpers. Violence, vol. 37, no. 13–14, pp. NP11110–NP11134, 2022. [49] G. Wilcox and D. Nordstokke, “Predictors of university student satisfaction with life, academic self-efficacy, and achievement in the first year,” Can. J. High. Educ., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 104–124, 2019. [50] J. Posselt, “Discrimination, competitiveness, and support in US graduate student mental health,” Stud. Grad. Postdr. Educ., 2021. [51] W. C. Birmingham, L. L. Wadsworth, J. H. Lassetter, T. C. Graff, E. Lauren, and M. Hung, “COVID-19 lockdown: Impact on college students’ lives,” J. Am. Coll. Heal., pp. 1–15, 2021. [52] I. Kaur, “A Study on Depression, Anxiety, Stress & Burnout among Psychology Students”. [53] P. Das, “Depression among the SC and ST students at higher secondary level in Jalpaiguri district,” 2019. [54] Y. Yu, W. Yan, J. Yu, Y. Xu, D. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Prevalence and Related Factors of Depression, Anxiety and Stress in University Students: an Extensive Populationbased Survey in China,” Front. Psychol., p. 1063, 2022. [55] C. T. Carr and R. A. Hayes, “Social media: Defining, developing, and divining,” Atl. J. Commun., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 46–65, 2015. [56] C. Berryman, C. J. Ferguson, and C. Negy, “Social Media Use and Mental Health among Young Adults,” Psychiatr. Q., vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 307–314, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s11126-017-9535-6. [57] E. W. Martinsen, “Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of anxiety and depression,” Nord. J. Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. sup47, pp. 25–29, Jan. 2008, doi: 10.1080/08039480802315640. [58] S. M. Coyne, A. A. Rogers, J. D. Zurcher, L. Stockdale, and M. Booth, “Does time spent using social media impact mental health?: An eight year longitudinal study,” Comput. Human Behav., vol. 104, p. 106160, 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.106160. [59] B. A. Erwin, C. L. Turk, R. G. Heimberg, D. M. Fresco, and D. A. Hantula, “The Internet: home to a severe population of individuals with social anxiety disorder?,” J. Anxiety Disord., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 629–646, 2004. [60] A. Lenhart, “Teens, social media & technology overview 2015,” 2015. [61] F. Karim, A. A. Oyewande, L. F. Abdalla, R. C. Ehsanullah, and S. Khan, “Social media use and its connection to mental health: a systematic review,” Cureus, vol. 12, no. 6, 2020. [62] J. Flint, “The genetic basis of major depressive disorder,” Mol. Psychiatry, pp. 1–12, 2023. [63] P. Turley et al., “Multi-trait analysis of genome-wide association summary statistics using MTAG,” Nat. Genet., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 229–237, 2018. [64] M. T. Tsuang and S. V Faraone, The genetics of mood disorders. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990. [65] P. A. Demange et al., “Investigating the genetic architecture of noncognitive skills using GWASby- subtraction,” Nat. Genet., vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 35–44, 2021. [66] J. J. Lee et al., “Gene discovery and polygenic prediction from a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in 1.1 million individuals,” Nat. Genet., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1112–1121, 2018. [67] J. Flint and K. S. Kendler, “The Genetics of Major Depression,” Neuron, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 484– 503, 2014, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.01.027. [68] G. Menta, A. Lepinteur, A. E. Clark, S. Ghislandi, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Maternal genetic risk for depression and child human capital,” J. Health Econ., vol. 87, p. 102718, 2023, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2022.102718. [69] A. F. Schatzberg et al., “HPA axis genetic variation, cortisol and psychosis in major depression,” Mol. Psychiatry, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 220–227, 2014. [70] M. K. Kapur, I. Zalpuri, S. Tran, and M. K. Singh, “Treating depression in the context of mania or mania risk in youth,” Curr. Treat. Options Psychiatry, vol. 7, pp. 400–415, 2020. [71] R. J. Wurtman, “Genes, stress, and depression,” Metabolism, vol. 54, no. 5, Supplement, pp. 16– 19, 2005, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2005.01.007. [72] A. J. Rush et al., “Acute and longer-term outcomes in depressed outpatients requiring one or several treatment steps: a STAR* D report,” Focus (Madison)., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 128–142, 2008. [73] M. Riedel et al., “Clinical predictors of response and remission in inpatients with depressive syndromes,” J. Affect. Disord., vol. 133, no. 1–2, pp. 137–149, 2011. [74] M. Balestri et al., “Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of treatment resistant depression: a prospective European multicenter study,” J. Affect. Disord., vol. 189, pp. 224–232, 2016. [75] A. Kautzky et al., “A new prediction model for evaluating treatment-resistant depression,” J. Clin. Psychiatry, vol. 78, no. 2, p. 13579, 2017. [76] D. Paksarian, L. Cui, J. Angst, V. Ajdacic-Gross, W. Rössler, and K. R. Merikangas, “Stability and change in reported age of onset of depression, back pain, and smoking over 29 years in a prospective cohort study,” J. Psychiatr. Res., vol. 88, pp. 105–112, 2017. [77] M. K. Wium-Andersen, D. D. Ørsted, and B. G. Nordestgaard, “Elevated plasma fibrinogen, psychological distress, antidepressant use, and hospitalization with depression: two large population-based studies,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 638–647, 2013. [78] M. K. Jha et al., “Can C-reactive protein inform antidepressant medication selection in depressed outpatients? Findings from the CO-MED trial,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 78, pp. 105–113, 2017. [79] O. Köhler-Forsberg et al., “Association between C-reactive protein (CRP) with depression symptom severity and specific depressive symptoms in major depression,” Brain. Behav. Immun., vol. 62, pp. 344–350, 2017. [80] R. Strawbridge, D. Arnone, A. Danese, A. Papadopoulos, A. H. Vives, and A. J. Cleare, “Inflammation and clinical response to treatment in depression: a meta-analysis,” Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol., vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1532–1543, 2015. [81] F. Lamers et al., “Serum proteomic profiles of depressive subtypes,” Transl. Psychiatry, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. e851–e851, 2016. [82] P. Cummings, “Arguments for and against standardized mean differences (effect sizes),” Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med., vol. 165, no. 7, pp. 592–596, 2011. [83] P. Cuijpers, E. Karyotaki, M. Ciharova, C. Miguel, H. Noma, and T. A. Furukawa, “The effects of psychotherapies for depression on response, remission, reliable change, and deterioration: A meta‐ analysis,” Acta Psychiatr. Scand., vol. 144, no. 3, pp. 288–299, 2021. [84] C. Kraus, B. Kadriu, R. Lanzenberger, C. A. Zarate Jr, and S. Kasper, “Prognosis and improved outcomes in major depression: a review,” Transl. Psychiatry, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 127, 2019.