Lipid nanoparticles (LNP) are the most well-studied first approved nanomedicine for drug delivery of therapeutic and vaccine formulation products. However, their nature is under constant investigation especially their liquid crystal state which leads to their complex biological behavior. LNPs are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) and suitable for ameliorating the toxicity and/or improving the pharmacokinetics of newly approved biomaterials with promising functionality and effects. During the past decade, many promising theranostic applications for LNPs have emerged resulting in huge potential for them in this field. Although there is progress in theranostic application, the gap between the bench and clinical application is undeniable, and that must be addressed to exploit the benefits of these nanomedicines for society.


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